I have 2 devices to try the live mode and be secure that is a responsive design. They are a samsung tablet and a huawei mobile. But there is one image that is visible on the tablet and on the mobile is not.
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I too test on two devices, which are an iPhone 7 and Galaxy A50 - and I encounter no bugs.
Try replacing the image component with a button, and set it’s background image, so it appears as a image.
Can you share some screenshots of this with us too please?